Use OFFLINE and ONLINE
1) If you are trying to make the database temporary unavailable for a period of time, you could take the database OFFLINE, and make it available by bringing it ONLINE whenever it is or you are ready.
2a) If you want to move the database or log files to different physical location or changing the database and/or log physical file name, AND keep them within the same SQL Server instance.
- Before you take the database offline, you need to know the logical name of the file. The name field is the logical name for the physical file name that you are about to change the path. Record the logical name for later use.
SELECT name, type, type_desc, physical_name, state, state_desc FROM sys.master_files WHERE database_id = DB_ID('YourDatabase')
- Take the database OFFLINE.
ALTER DATABASE YourDatabase SET OFFLINE WITH ROLLBACK IMMEDIATE;
- Move the database and/or log files to different location.
- Update the database and/or log files path registered on its SQL Server instance. Execute the T-SQL command for each database and log files,
ALTER DATABASE YourDatabase MODIFY FILE (NAME = YourFileLogicalName, FILENAME = 'Your Database or Log new physical path')
- Bring the database ONLINE.
ALTER DATABASE YourDatabase SET ONLINE;
* If you just want to change the logical name, you don't have to take the database OFFLINE. You could change it on SSMS or T-SQL.
Right click on the database > Properties > Select Page > Change it under Logical Name column > OK.
ALTER DATABASE YourDatabase MODIFY FILE (NAME = YourFileLogicalName, NEWNAME = YourFileNewLogicalName)
2b) If you are relocating a file during part of the scheduled disk maintenance process, you may need to change the file path registered on its SQL Server instance before taking the database OFFLINE. This assure the server has the right path for the database and log files when the instance restart, after being shut down for maintenance.
- When the database and/or log file path is successfully updated on the instance, a message will show; 'The file "YourDatabaseFile" has been modified in the system catalog. The new path will be used the next time the database is started.'
1) If you want to move the database and log files to a different SQL Server instance or another server.
- Rollback active transaction and gain exclusive access. Detach the database. (optional: update statistics)
ALTER DATABASE YourDatabase SET SINGLE_USER WITH ROLLBACK IMMEDIATE; EXEC sp_detach_db 'YourDatabase', 'true'
- Move database and log files to different location.
- Attach the database on different instance on same/another server.
USE master; CREATE DATABASE YourDatabase ON (FILENAME = 'the physical path of your database file') LOG ON (FILENAME = 'the physical path of your log file') FOR ATTACH;
- If the database has previously set to single user, you may want to set it to multiple user access option.
ALTER DATABASE YourDatabase SET MULTI_USER
2) Even though you can choose to detach and attach the database back on the same SQL Server instance for scenario like changing physical path or file name, it is recommended to use the OFFLINE and ONLINE methods due to the restriction and limitation on DETACH. When you detach a database, you remove the database from the instance. It is required to remove the database from any participation of replication, mirroring and snapshot.
Do you have other use case that could utilize either OFFLINE, ONLINE or DETACH, ATTACH option?